Osteoarthritis of the hip joint is a disease of the musculoskeletal system with progressive course and chronic nature. Dystrophic changes begin in cartilage tissue, which changes its structure, becomes loose, fibrous, becomes thinner and loses damping function. As a result, the bone joints begin to rub against each other, motor activity is lost and pain appears. In the absence of treatment, a person becomes incapacitated.
Clinical appearance and causes of osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis of the hip joint occupies a leading position among diseases of the musculoskeletal system and mainly affects the adult population after 35 years. In the medical classifier it is assigned the code M16 according to MBK 10.
The hip joint is the largest in the human body and receives the largest load. It connects the bones to the pelvis and has a spherical appearance. The round femoral head is inserted into the acetabular incision. Its surface is covered with cartilage tissue, which allows the bones to slide and performs suction functions, protecting the bones from friction, destruction and providing a range of motion.
The mechanism of osteoarthritis is simple:
- The amount of synovial fluid decreases, due to which the node washes worse from it, and the supply of nutrients is reduced.
- The joint structure becomes loose. Due to friction, the cartilage becomes thinner, it ceases to soften the pressure on the bones.
- Growths (osteophytes) form along the edges of bone sites.
- The joint gap is gradually reduced.
- The person experiences severe pain, movement problems, the limb is shortened, provoking lameness.
Osteoarthritis of the groin can develop for several reasons, but more often it is provoked by a combination of unfavorable circumstances. The disease is divided into primary and secondary. In the first case, doctors do not find a reason for the development of the disease, in the second, osteoarthritis occurs due to certain pathologies.
- power loads, especially in the post-traumatic period, when the joint has not yet recovered;
- congenital anomaly of the femoral head (dysplasia);
- arthritis (inflammation of the joints);
- prolonged stress;
- hormonal changes and diseases of the endocrine system;
- infectious diseases.
Osteoarthritis can be unilateral, with damage to the right or left thigh joint. Most often there is a two-way option, when the pathological process affects both parties.
Symptoms and degrees of osteoarthritis
The clinic of osteoarthritis depends directly on the stage of the disease. At first, a person begins to feel a slight discomfort in the groin and morning stiffness of the leg, while swelling and swelling of the soft tissues does not occur. With the development of pathology, an acute period begins, which is characterized by severe pain.
On a note. When the first symptoms appear, you should consult a doctor and undergo an examination. Early disease responds well to treatment.
The main complaint of all patients is pain and limited mobility. Their severity depends on the dystrophic changes in the cartilage.
There are 3 degrees of the disease:
- In the 1st degree, only discomfort arises after a prolonged physical exertion (uphill climbing, running, cycling), which goes away on its own after rest. The muscles are in good shape, the movements are not restricted. A narrowing of the joint space can be seen on x-ray.
- At 2 degrees the pain starts, which is given in the groin area, spreads to the buttocks and the front of the thigh. There are "initial" pains when you try to get up or start walking, which disappear after 2-3 minutes. After a prolonged exercise, the pain increases and goes away at rest. A symptom of osteoarthritis is a characteristic crack in the joints, movements are limited (thigh abduction), muscle strength decreases, with painful sensations, a smooth muscle spasm appears. On X-ray, small osteophytes are visible, which are located along the edges of the bony areas of the joints. The femoral neck is thickened and enlarged, the ankle space is significantly narrowed.
- In 3 degrees of disease, the pain is permanent and does not subside even at rest. While walking, patients use improvised objects (canes, crutches). There is an atrophy of the muscular tissue of the thigh and lower leg, the limb is shortened - to reach the ground, the patient is forced to stand on tiptoe. The X-ray image shows massive osteophytes, the femoral head is flattened, the wrist space is practically invisible.
Some doctors even distinguish the 4th degree of the disease. On top of the ankle ossification occurs and complete disability, a person can not move without the help of crutches. The degree of osteoarthritis is determined on the basis of X-ray images, which help to clarify the etiology of the pathological process.
The following types of osteoarthritis are distinguished:
- dysplastic - the inclination of the acetabulum is determined;
- post-traumatic - depends on the nature of the injury and the shape of the joint after the bone has melted.
Osteoarthritis of children
Causes of pathology in children are trauma, subluxation and dysplasia. Metabolic disorders can provoke the destruction of cartilage tissue.
The main symptom of the disease in children is pain syndrome after long games. With the development of osteoarthritis, they become more intense and stronger. The child refuses to run, his appetite decreases, excessive tears appear. The second symptom is limited movement in the affected joint, numbness of the foot. Parents should pay attention to the characteristic flaw. If the first symptoms appear, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor.
On a note. A child's body regenerates faster than an adult. Timely treatment will save the child from disability.
If the diagnosis is confirmed, the main goal is to improve the blood supply to the ankle. For this, the doctor prescribes various physiotherapy procedures, exercise therapy, visits to sanatoriums, medications.
Prevention consists of proper nutrition. Particularly important are vitamins B, C, D. It is necessary to walk a lot in the fresh air, move actively and avoid traumatic situations.
The difference between osteoarthritis and other joint diseases
Many patients, after hearing the diagnosis of "osteoarthritis", confuse it with other joint diseases. Often doctors in medical history make a note of "coxarthrosis". Consonant words confuse the patient.
Arthrosis is the general name for the pathological processes that cause the destruction of cartilage tissue. It is usually removed with deformity of the joints without infectious and inflammatory processes. It can affect the knee, elbow, shoulder and other joints. Coxarthrosis is an arthrosis of the hip joint, as indicated by the prefix "cox", which highlights a specific area.
What is the difference between sacroiliitis and osteoarthritis? In the first case, inflammation of the sacroiliac joint appears, which is characterized by pain in the sacrum when you are sitting. There is swelling in the vertebrae, pain in the back. With osteoarthritis, cartilage thinning occurs, as a result of which bone friction begins - this causes pain.
Arthritis is an inflammatory process in the joint tissues. The difference with osteoarthritis is that the latter is caused by mechanical movements leading to cartilage erosion. With arthritis, swelling and redness appear in the joint region, the cause being infectious diseases or inflammatory processes within the body. The reactive stage of the disease almost always causes osteoarthritis. The sensations of pain are similar, but with coxarthrosis they subside at night, and with arthritis they become stronger.
The clinical picture is similar. To accurately diagnose and rule out arthritis and sacroiliitis, doctors perform a blood sample and test. An increased content of leukocytes and ESR indicates an inflammatory process in the body.
Osteoarthritis requires long-term and complex treatment, which is based on medication, physiotherapy, exercise therapy and massage, while diet is given an important role. Proper nutrition is needed both in the aggravation phase and in remission. It should be balanced and contain all the essential vitamins. In addition, diet promotes weight loss, which reduces stress on the joints.
- vegetables and fruits;
- lean meat;
- water-crumbly porridge;
- dairy products;
- wholemeal bread;
- a fish;
The menu should include gelatin. Based on it, you can make various cakes from berries and fruits, as well as jelly meat. Eat cottage cheese, yogurt, milk every day. It is better to replace chicken eggs with quail eggs. Boil, simmer or steam foods. Eliminate fried and fatty foods. Give preference to vegetable oils. Drink at least 1. 5 cups of clean water a day. The temperature of the food should not be too high or too low.
Avoid fast foods with fresh water with soda. Exclude semi-finished products, sausages, canning. Prefer natural products without added preservatives.
What is forbidden:
- smoked products;
- white bread and bakery products;
- hot spices;
- fatty meats;
- Canned food;
- high fat dairy products;
- carbonated drinks;
Important. Food intake should be frequent, at least 5-6 times a day, 200 grams. Snacks are best made with your favorite fruits, you can drink a glass of kefir at night. The diet should not exceed 2000 kcal for women and 3000 kcal for men.
Preventive measures consist of timely elimination of the root causes of the disease and general strengthening measures.
To prevent the development of the disease, you must adhere to the following rules:
- To live an active lifestyle. Swimming, stress-free exercises on the wrist are recommended. Preventive methods include a bath and sauna, which improve blood circulation and remove toxins.
- Follow a diet. This is necessary to provide the body with the necessary vitamins and speed up metabolic processes.
- Avoid hypothermia. Low temperatures cause muscle cramps, which impair the blood supply to the joint.
- To minimize the possibility of trauma, especially with the development of coxarthrosis.
Depending on the rules, patient ratings were positive. They noticed a reduction in pain, restoration of joint mobility, and an improvement in well-being.
Coxarthrosis or osteoarthritis of the groin is a disease with chronic course, stages of deterioration and remission. Timely treatment allows you to stop the dystrophic process in the cartilage tissue and maintain the mobility of the legs. In the absence of therapy, a person becomes disabled, and in this case, only surgery and joint replacement can restore the musculoskeletal system.