Back pain is one of the most common complaints among people. Unlike other mammals, only people that experience back problems, because to go directly significantly increases the load on the spine.
The column consists of several departments, and often throbbing pain in the back, is localized only in one of them.
Factors that affect the deterioration of the spine known to all:
- sedentary a sedentary lifestyle;
- the lack of exercise;
- sudden weight lifting;
- heavy physical work.
In addition, the influence of genetic factors and comorbidities, which, for example, impedes the blood circulation in the spine.
The spine is a group of vertebrae, between which there are elastic disks, which play the role of shock absorber. The mobility of all the segments attached to the joints and articular cartilage.
The violation of the integrity or the location of any part of the vertebra leads to various pathologies and to express the pain.
The spinal cord and out the particular nerve roots that pass close to the vertebrae, so that the majority of the discomfort associated with its infringement.
The most throbbing pain in the spine occurs due to the following reasons:
- Cracks in the vertebrae.
- Low back pain.
- Hernia between the vertebrae.
Such a serious disease are easily distinguished from ordinary back pain, because in the latter case, it is only the inflammation or the stretching of the muscles, and the condition passes quickly. In the case of lesions of the spine from the sensations are very powerful and require a serious treatment of the measures.
Cracks in the spine
In fact, in the medical community, the term is not adopted. The term "crack" means rather fracture incomplete without spinal cord injury.
The spine is designed to support the whole body, while it is quite flexible and agile, resulting in possible to make several turns, leans. However, even as a nearly perfect mechanism is very unstable.
The cracks can occur for the following reasons:
- Bad fall, or the performance of sports exercises.
- Falling from a great height.
- A strong compression of the body (such as a car accident).
Older persons represent a group at special risk because they have these damages can occur even with the minimum of tension in the rear, your vertebrae, are too fragile and not enough necessary supplied with microelements.
Not always people can immediately suspect in itself a violation of the integrity of the vertebrae. In some cases, the cracks are so minor that they continue to live. However, most of these changes are immediately felt.
The typical symptoms of fractures of the spine:
- strong, sharp and throbbing pain at the site of the lesion, which can extend to other areas of the back;
- increased pain on palpation or change in position of the body;
- the formation of swelling and bruising at the site of trauma;
- the tension of the back muscles and limitation of movements.
If the result of the injury that broke part of a vertebra, it can compress the nerve endings of the spine or hurt the spinal cord itself, in this case, the pain is burning and sharp and it is necessary to take emergency measures, hospitalization to remove a splinter.
Low back pain is a pathology associated with degenerative changes of intervertebral discs and articular cartilage.
It develops more frequently in people of age due to poor nutrition of the tissues, however, recently diagnosed "younger". Due to the lack of nutrients suffers first disc between the vertebrae, which loses its strength and flexibility. It is reduced in size, is pressed and as a result ceases to perform its main function in the vertebrae adjacent. This thin pad is not able to separate the bone tissue of the vertebrae of the other, and they begin to interact, causing the inflammation.
Degenerative changes in disc lead to the same anomalies, and all if the nerve roots.
Most changes affect the vertebral joints and ligaments. The bone tissue is growing, as a result of the loss of mobility of the spine, it is twisted, develop kyphosis, scoliosis.
For the reference! The load, which is distributed unevenly with respect to the human body, for example, a heavy bag that day-to-day wear on one shoulder leads to disease of the spine.
To cause the disease may not only old age, but a number of reasons:
- increase of the load on the spine: heavy physical work, obesity, occupations associated with constant sitting or standing;
- the metabolic disorders;
- the lack of vitamins and minerals;
- somatic diseases;
- hormonal changes.
Low back pain is divided into cervical, thoracic and lumbar.Symptoms:
- With the defeat of the cervical you experience the following symptoms: pain in the neck, the arms, the lack of sensitivity, hearing loss, headaches.
- With the defeat of the thoracic appear: pain pain in the back, dyspnoea, pain in the heart muscle.
- With the defeat of the lumbar feels throbbing pain in the low back, sacrum, below, extends to the legs. It can produce disorders of the organs urinary.
With the defeat of the cervical spine is the circulation of the brain and, as a result, there are other symptoms:
- decrease of pressure.
- dizziness, the appearance of the spots and points before the eyes;
- the sleep disturbance.
Often osteochondrosis occurs or throbbing pain that stretches the spine in the lumbar region. This is due to the fact that there are top 5 vertebrae that presses the entire upper part of the spine. In addition, this area is more taut in lifting a load, tilt, swivel.
Spondylosis is a disease in which the edges of the vertebrae are formed by growths on the bone, pathological bone growths. This condition is the next step after osteochondrosis.
Due to the deformation of the intervertebral discs and the development of the local inflammation is complicated by the bone tissue of the vertebrae. Finally begin to Deposit calcium salts, form the so-called spikes, which compress the nerve roots and the spinal blood vessels.
The causes of the disease are often:
- an injury to the back;
- old age;
- chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes);
The symptoms are similar to osteoarthritis and manifests itself in the form of pain in the innervated area, the muscle tension, restriction of mobility, the increase of the kyphosis or lordosis.
Interesting fact! Spondylosis he suffered another ancient people. The archaeologists were able to detect such pathological changes in the structure of the vertebral remains of the mummies.
Hernia between vertebrae
The disease does not usually happen abruptly. Gradual compression of the disks located between the vertebrae. Some part of the ring of fibrous (outer shell) beyond the edge of the vertebrae. In this situation, to speak only of disc protrusion.
With a strong or sharp compression, insufficient nutrition of the tissues of the ring fibrous to burst and then the inner part of the disk pulpous nucleus comes out. In this case, the diagnosis is hernia. The core affects the nerve endings and thus causes the burning pain.
Most often hernias are located in the lumbar region. The person experiences the following symptoms:
- pain, it divides into the buttocks and legs;
- numbness of the foot;
- the failure of the system urogenital.
For hernia of the cervical characterized by: the lack of sensitivity in the hands, pressure fluctuations, dizziness, pain radiated to the shoulders.
For herniated thoracic (which happens less often) a characteristic chest pain that is often perceived as a disease of neighboring organs.
The term lumbago refers to beating low back pain, with different causes. Is not independent of the disease, but only a manifestation of the negative changes in the vertebrae.
The base of lumbago are dystrophic and degenerative processes of the spine. Often, the root cause, as many other conditions – low back pain.
In addition, lumbago can be caused by:
- ankylosing spondylitis;
- lesions and tumors of the spine;
- dysplasia congenital.
The condition is often referred to as lumbago pain in the lumbar region, because the resulting pain is sharp and throbbing.
In this state, the person is sharply bent and can't straighten. The relief takes the prone position on a hard surface to put under the pillow. Because acute pain occurs muscle spasm and strained muscles, and even stronger discomfort.
If it affects the sciatic nerve roots occurs lumbago, with pain spreading to buttocks and thighs.
In addition to pain in lumbago due to such symptoms as:
- numbness of the skin at the site of acute pain or, on the contrary, a sensation of tingling and "pins and needles";
- heart palpitations;
- the sweating.
The condition of lumbago may last from a few hours to several days and, sometimes, just independently, without any interference.
Throbbing pain in the back is almost always a signal of injury of the spine. It is not enough to relax or change position. In the first signs of disease, you should go to a medical center for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.